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Impact on Navy & Marines of the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918  Bradley Omanson
 Mar 14, 2012 10:34 PST 
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The author below, a retired Navy Chaplain, is preparing an article on the effects of the 1918 flu pandemic on the US Navy and Marine Corps.  His full explanatory letter is included below.  If anyone can assist in his research, please contact him directly: David Thompson at datho-@gmail.com.

He is seeking sources and contacts.  I will be looking through my medical resources, but they are primarily concerned with battlefield injuries and deaths.

Thanks,
BJ Omanson 

-----Original Message-----
From: "David Thompson" <datho-@gmail.com>
Sent 3/12/2012 4:25:40 PM
To: "BJ Omanson/USMC WW I History" <skip-@labyrinth.net>
Subject: The impact upon the Marine Corps of the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I

Dear Sir,

I came across your website on WW I history of the Marine Corps and I am looking for any information on how the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I impacted the USMC around the world during that time... and especially the Marines in France with the 2nd Infantry Division.

I am a retired US Navy Chaplain who served Marines on Okinawa as Assistant Base Chaplain at MCB Camp S.D. Butler for three years (1984-87) serving under  MG James Day, USMC, who was awarded the  Congressional Medal of Honor for action on Okinawa in WW II.  I later served  as Assistant Group Chaplain with 3rd FSSG/FMFPAC during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 under BGEN (later Lt General) George Christmas, USMC.

In my retirement, I have done some free lance writing and now am preparing an article for publication for  MOAA's  Military Officer Magazine on the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in World War I  where 44% (51,154) of all American War dead in WW I (116,000) died in bed killed by the flu...not by bullets or shells. Yet when I read military histories or consult US History books on WW I, this great catastrophe is barely mentioned...if at all.

I tripped across this forgotten piece of military history when I started going through the papers of my dad this past year in constructing a family history. He was a WW I Army PFC who reported being on a burial detail for 700 soldiers who died of the flu in Camp Dodge, IA in two weeks in the Fall of 1918...and how he also got the flu, but survived. When asked, "What did you do in the war?" he would respond, "I survived the flu."

This story of the Great Flu Pandemic in 1918 is largely an untold story in American history and in American Military History of WW I. It was hidden from the American people at the end of the war due to embarrassment of the failure to stop this pandemic and having no answers for it. It was a classic case of disenfranchised grief for over 50,000 families of soldiers, sailors, and marines who had died in bed rather than in battle...not heroically leading a charge over the trenches and getting medals for their sacrifice...but hemorrhaging in a bed and suffocating from respiratory flu. Their bodies were quietly shipped home without ceremony in a box from training camps in the US (60 % were new recruits with less than 4 months in the service) and from Army and Marine combat units in France (one front line Army division in France lost 7,000 soldiers out of 15,000 in one week)  ...no medals...just a note from the War Department..."we regret to inform you..."

Military families quietly buried their dead in funerals that lasted 15 minutes or less with only immediate family members allowed to attend  (authorities limited  public gatherings to stop the flu from spreading in the civilian population ravaged by the flu pandemic that killed over 675,000 civilians in America in 1918-19).

The Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I  was a grief event that is hard to imagine...these huge military losses were compressed into 3 months (Sept-Nov 1918)  where over 50,000 American service personnel were killed by the flu...equal to KIA's of the Korean War and Vietnam War (and close to half of WW I " in the line of duty" deaths in WW I). It was a massive creation of military widows and grieving families in a three month period in the Fall of 1918. This happened in the military, in context with this flu also ravaging the American civilian population in 1918-19 where 675,000 Americans died of the flu...and in the world... 50-100 Million deaths of 20-40 year old adults.

In WW I, out of 116,000 American servicemen and women who died in the line of duty...44% of them (51,154) died of respiratory influenza (equal to more than three full Army or Marine Corps heavy divisions being wiped out to the last man) compressed largely into three months (Sept-November 1918) during the Meuse Argonne Campaign that ended the war. General Pershing, the AEF CIC was in a panic...he had over 340,000 soldiers hospitalized with the flu in France...many dying of the flu...toward the big push at the end of the war in October 1918.

A number of Navy doctors, nurses, and hospital corpsmen were awarded medals for bravery in dealing with this pandemic (a number received the Navy Cross Medal posthumously), that took the lives of many medical personnel trying to save the lives of sailors and marines in field hospitals and base hospitals in France and in the US respectively.

In journalism parlance, talk about "bury the lead" in the story of WW I in American history and in reporting on military medicine practice in World War I. The ignorance of this event in popular culture today is a bit stunning. It was one of the great tragedies in the world in the 20th Century...50 to 100 Million deaths worldwide due to this contagious disease outbreak during WW I in 1918. It is a story hidden in plain sight, having gone largely unrecognized in American military histories and American military museums.

Recently, the  popular movie "Contagion" (starring Matt Damon) makes repeated references to the worst flu pandemic in world history, which took place during WW I in the Fall of 1918.

The US Army, which lost 46,992 soldiers to this 1918 flu pandemic (Sept-Nov 1918) has been very helpful in providing me information for this article from the US Army Medical Command and the US Army Center for Military History.

As a retired naval officer who served with the Marines, I would like to tell the Navy-Marine Corps side of the story also, in relation to this mass casualty event.

Could you provide me any information or resources or contacts to get further information on this subject related tot eh Marine Corps to share in my article  how this pandemic impacted the Marine Corps in the US and with the AEF in France in the Fall of 1918. I am hoping to get this article published for Veterans Day, November 11, 2012 commemorating the 94th Anniversary of "Armistice Day" on 11/11/1918 ending WW I.

I am interested in the following information:  (1) Any Marine Corps history on the impact of this flu pandemic in 1918 on Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving in Marine units, (2) information on the response of Navy medicine and the work of Navy Corpsmen, doctors, and nurses attached to the Marine Corps during this pandemic.

Any help of guidance to sources or individuals that could provide information to help me tell the Marine Corps side of this story would be greatly appreciated.

Sincerely,

CDR David Thompson, CHC, USNR (Ret.)
15561 Cherry Path
Rosemount, Minnesota 55068-2588
(651) 423-0472
datho-@gmail.com

P.S. INFORMATION BRIEF ON THE 1918 FLU PANDEMIC'S IMPACT UPON THE ARMED FORCES IN WORLD WAR I

This flu Pandemic swept through the military in World War I in 1918, in an Army with an end strength of  4,128,479 and Navy with an end strength of 530,338.

According to military records from the Army and Navy, the death rate was 25% higher in the Army than in civilian population, primarily hitting servicemen ages 20-40. Reportedly 25% of the Army and 40% of the Navy fell ill in the flu pandemic.

According to the Army Medical Corps Historical Section, 1,125,401 Army soldiers were admitted for treatment for respiratory disease brought on by influenza.  46,992 Army servicemen died of the respiratory flu (3,393 fewer than the 50,385 soldiers who were killed in combat or died of wounds as a result of combat action in the Army in WW I).

The total number of  Army deaths to all diseases was 58,119 in WW I ...of which respiratory disease from influenza accounted for 46,992 Army deaths (80.35% of all deaths caused by disease in WW I).

New recruits were hit the hardest, with 60% of all those who got sick had been in the military less than 4 months (many coming from rural areas where they had less immunity than city dwellers).

By the first week of October 1918, 45,000 soldiers were sick in military camps and 340,000 soldiers were hospitalized in France (at the height of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of 1918). For General Pershing, CIC for the AEF and the Army Chief of Personnel, they were both hard pressed to field a healthy Army to effectively fight the German Army in October 1918.

Of the 121,225 Navy/Marine/Coast Guard personnel admitted for treatment at Naval Hospitals for influenza, 4,158 died (twice as many died of the flu than died in combat action from the sea services in WW I).

This totals:  51,154 American service personnel dying of the flu in 1918 (44% of all the 116,000 in the line of duty deaths of American servicemen in WW I).

Most Americans and most of our veterans are ignorant of this pandemic and how it nearly crippled the US military in WW I.

Over 675,000 Americans civilians died of this pandemic in 1918-19, more than all military personnel killed in WW I, WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. The odds of death from the Spanish flu in the American civilian population of 103,208,000 was 1 in 152.9.

Worldwide, in a time when death statistics were poorly recorded, estimates range from 50 million to 100,000 million dying of this pandemic.

A number of articles have been written on the subject, but not circulated well....circulated only in public health and military medicine circles when discussing bio-terrorism and in very limited historical circles that the general public and veteran population knows little about.

Note some of the website articles below that accurately describe this Great Flu Pandemic of 1918:

(1) The Influenza Pandemic of 1918: The Influence of the Influenza Pandemic on the Military (see; http://www.antimicrobe.org/history/Influenza/flu_military.htm ).

(2) 1918 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Army Perspective (see; http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=641 ).

(3)  Influenza of 1918 (Spanish Flu) and the US Navy (see: http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/influenza_main.htm ).

(4) This site shows impact: More people (est. 50 Million) died in one year in the 1918 epidemic than in the 4 years of the Black Death in the 1300's. 675,000 Americans died of the epidemic and...reports 47,000 US Army soldiers died of the flu in 1918, equal to 3 whole army divisions being killed off in the war by this disease (see: http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/uda/ ).

(5) Here are some Army pictures: http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-701&va=1918+flu+pandemic+in+the+army .

(6) Also another site on the pandemic in the military camps: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862337/ .

(7) Here is yet  another site ( http://www.rotten.com/library/history/flu-pandemic/ ).

(8) The Mother of all Viruses http://www.realtruth.org/articles/090907-002-health.html ).

(9) In1918, World War I and the Spanish Flu Fed Each Other (see: http://bookofodds.com/Accidents-Death/Articles/A0225-Flu-Week-In-1918-World-War-I-and-the-Spanish-Flu-Fed-Each-Other ).

(10) Report, Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War, Vol.IX, Communicable and Other Diseases (see: http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AMH/XX/WWI/Army/Medical/IX/USA-Med-IX-2.html ).

(11) Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps casualty list for 1918 including flu casualties (see: http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyUS-Casualties.htm#USMCNotes ).

(12) Look at this site on the 1918 flu pandemic ( see:http://1918.pandemicflu.gov/index.htm ). it shows the impact in every state...some hit harder than others (see: Illinois & Chicago).

(13) Behind the numbers of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 in the United States (see: http://bookofodds.com/content/view/print/567550 ).

(14) Gina Kolata, a New York Times correspondent for scientific affairs wrote of this 1918 H1N1 flu in her book "Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused it (see: http://www.amazon.com/Flu-Story-Influenza-Pandemic-ebook/dp/B004YEJ6P8/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1328591544&sr=1-2 ).

(15) Fever of War: The influenza Epidemic in the US Army in World War I by Carol R. Bylerly (see: http://www.amazon.com/Fever-War-Influenza-Epidemic-during/dp/0814799248 ).
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The author below, a retired Navy Chaplain, is preparing an article on the effects of the 1918 flu pandemic on the US Navy and Marine Corps.  His full explanatory letter is included below.  If anyone can assist in his research, please contact him directly: David Thompson at datho-@gmail.com.<br />
<br />
He is seeking sources and contacts.  I will be looking through my medical resources, but they are primarily concerned with battlefield injuries and deaths.<br />
<br />
Thanks,<br />
BJ Omanson <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
-----Original Message-----<br />
From: "David Thompson" <datho-@gmail.com><br />
Sent 3/12/2012 4:25:40 PM<br />
To: "BJ Omanson/USMC WW I History" <skip-@labyrinth.net><br />
Subject: The impact upon the Marine Corps of the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I<br />
<br />
Dear Sir,<br />
<br />
I came across your website on WW I history of the Marine Corps and I am looking for any information on how the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I impacted the USMC around the world during that time... and especially the Marines in France with the 2nd Infantry Division.<br />
<br />
I am a retired US Navy Chaplain who served Marines on Okinawa as Assistant Base Chaplain at MCB Camp S.D. Butler for three years (1984-87) serving under  MG James Day, USMC, who was awarded the  Congressional Medal of Honor for action on Okinawa in WW II.  I later served  as Assistant Group Chaplain with 3rd FSSG/FMFPAC during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 under BGEN (later Lt General) George Christmas, USMC.<br />
<br />
In my retirement, I have done some free lance writing and now am preparing an article for publication for  MOAA's  <i>Military Officer Magazine</i> on the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918 in World War I  where 44% (51,154) of all American War dead in WW I (116,000) died in bed killed by the flu...not by bullets or shells. Yet when I read military histories or consult US History books on WW I, this great catastrophe is barely mentioned...if at all. <br />
<br />
I tripped across this forgotten piece of military history when I started going through the papers of my dad this past year in constructing a family history. He was a WW I Army PFC who reported being on a burial detail for 700 soldiers who died of the flu in Camp Dodge, IA in two weeks in the Fall of 1918...and how he also got the flu, but survived. When asked, "What did you do in the war?" he would respond, "I survived the flu."<br />
<br />
This story of the Great Flu Pandemic in 1918 is largely an untold story in American history and in American Military History of WW I. It was hidden from the American people at the end of the war due to embarrassment of the failure to stop this pandemic and having no answers for it. It was a classic case of disenfranchised grief for over 50,000 families of soldiers, sailors, and marines who had died in bed rather than in battle...not heroically leading a charge over the trenches and getting medals for their sacrifice...but hemorrhaging in a bed and suffocating from respiratory flu. Their bodies were quietly shipped home without ceremony in a box from training camps in the US (60 % were new recruits with less than 4 months in the service) and from Army and Marine combat units in France (one front line Army division in France lost 7,000 soldiers out of 15,000 in one week)  ...no medals...just a note from the War Department..."we regret to inform you..." <br />
<br />
Military families quietly buried their dead in funerals that lasted 15 minutes or less with only immediate family members allowed to attend  (authorities limited  public gatherings to stop the flu from spreading in the civilian population ravaged by the flu pandemic that killed over 675,000 civilians in America in 1918-19).<br />
<br />
The Flu Pandemic of 1918 in WW I  was a grief event that is hard to imagine...these huge military losses were compressed into 3 months (Sept-Nov 1918)  where over 50,000 American service personnel were killed by the flu...equal to KIA's of the Korean War and Vietnam War (and close to half of WW I " in the line of duty" deaths in WW I). It was a massive creation of military widows and grieving families in a three month period in the Fall of 1918. This happened in the military, in context with this flu also ravaging the American civilian population in 1918-19 where 675,000 Americans died of the flu...and in the world... 50-100 Million deaths of 20-40 year old adults.<br />
<br />
In WW I, out of 116,000 American servicemen and women who died in the line of duty...44% of them (51,154) died of respiratory influenza (equal to more than three full Army or Marine Corps heavy divisions being wiped out to the last man) compressed largely into three months (Sept-November 1918) during the Meuse Argonne Campaign that ended the war. General Pershing, the AEF CIC was in a panic...he had over 340,000 soldiers hospitalized with the flu in France...many dying of the flu...toward the big push at the end of the war in October 1918. <br />
<br />
A number of Navy doctors, nurses, and hospital corpsmen were awarded medals for bravery in dealing with this pandemic (a number received the Navy Cross Medal posthumously), that took the lives of many medical personnel trying to save the lives of sailors and marines in field hospitals and base hospitals in France and in the US respectively. <br />
<br />
<b>In journalism parlance, talk about "bury the lead" in the story of WW I in American history and in reporting on military medicine practice in World War I. </b>The ignorance of this event in popular culture today is a bit stunning. It was one of the great tragedies in the world in the 20th Century...<b>50 to 100 Million deaths worldwide due to this contagious disease outbreak during WW I in 1918.</b> It is a story hidden in plain sight, having gone largely unrecognized in American military histories and American military museums. <br />
<br />
Recently, the  popular movie "<b><i>Contagion</i></b>" (starring Matt Damon) makes repeated references to the worst flu pandemic in world history, which took place during WW I in the Fall of 1918.<br />
<br />
The US Army, which lost 46,992 soldiers to this 1918 flu pandemic (Sept-Nov 1918) has been very helpful in providing me information for this article from the US Army Medical Command and the US Army Center for Military History.<br />
<br />
As a retired naval officer who served with the Marines, I would like to tell the Navy-Marine Corps side of the story also, in relation to this mass casualty event.<br />
<br />
Could you provide me any information or resources or contacts to get further information on this subject related tot eh Marine Corps to share in my article  how this pandemic impacted the Marine Corps in the US and with the AEF in France in the Fall of 1918. I am hoping to get this article published for Veterans Day, November 11, 2012 commemorating the 94th Anniversary of "Armistice Day" on 11/11/1918 ending WW I.<br />
<br />
<b>I am interested in the following information:  (1) Any Marine Corps history on the impact of this flu pandemic in 1918 on Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving in Marine units, (2) information on the response of Navy medicine and the work of Navy Corpsmen, doctors, and nurses attached to the Marine Corps during this pandemic. <br />
</b><br />
Any help of guidance to sources or individuals that could provide information to help me tell the Marine Corps side of this story would be greatly appreciated. <br />
<br />
Sincerely, <br />
  <br />
CDR David Thompson, CHC, USNR (Ret.)<br />
15561 Cherry Path<br />
Rosemount, Minnesota 55068-2588<br />
<a href="tel:%28651%29%20423-0472" target="_blank" value="+16514230472">(651) 423-0472</a><br />
<a href="mailto:datho-@gmail.com" target="_blank">datho-@gmail.com</a><br />
<br />
<br />
<b>P.S. INFORMATION BRIEF ON THE 1918 FLU PANDEMIC'S IMPACT UPON THE ARMED FORCES IN WORLD WAR I</b><br />
<br />
<b><i>This flu Pandemic swept through the military in World War I in 1918, in an Army with an end strength of  4,128,479 and Navy with an end strength of 530,338. <br />
<br />
According to military records from the Army and Navy, the death rate was 25% higher in the Army than in civilian population, primarily hitting servicemen ages 20-40. Reportedly 25% of the Army and 40% of the Navy fell ill in the flu pandemic.<br />
<br />
According to the Army Medical Corps Historical Section, 1,125,401 Army soldiers were admitted for treatment for respiratory disease brought on by influenza.  46,992 Army servicemen died of the respiratory flu (3,393 fewer than the 50,385 soldiers who were killed in combat or died of wounds as a result of combat action in the Army in WW I).<br />
 <br />
The total number of  Army deaths to all diseases was 58,119 in WW I ...of which respiratory disease from influenza accounted for 46,992 Army deaths (80.35% of all deaths caused by disease in WW I).</i></b><br />
<br />
<b><i>New recruits were hit the hardest, with 60% of all those who got sick had been in the military less than 4 months (many coming from rural areas where they had less immunity than city dwellers).<br />
<br />
By the first week of October 1918, 45,000 soldiers were sick in military camps and 340,000 soldiers were hospitalized in France (at the height of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of 1918). For General Pershing, CIC for the AEF and the Army Chief of Personnel, they were both hard pressed to field a healthy Army to effectively fight the German Army in October 1918.<br />
<br />
Of the 121,225 Navy/Marine/Coast Guard personnel admitted for treatment at Naval Hospitals for influenza, 4,158 died (twice as many died of the flu than died in combat action from the sea services in WW I).<br />
<br />
This totals:  51,154 American service personnel dying of the flu in 1918 (44% of all the 116,000 in the line of duty deaths of American servicemen in WW I). <br />
<br />
Most Americans and most of our veterans are ignorant of this pandemic and how it nearly crippled the US military in WW I.<br />
<br />
Over 675,000 Americans civilians died of this pandemic in 1918-19, more than all military personnel killed in WW I, WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. The odds of death from the Spanish flu in the American civilian population of 103,208,000 was 1 in 152.9.<br />
<br />
Worldwide, in a time when death statistics were poorly recorded, estimates range from 50 million to 100,000 million dying of this pandemic.</i></b><i><br />
</i><br />
A number of articles have been written on the subject, but not circulated well....circulated only in public health and military medicine circles when discussing bio-terrorism and in very limited historical circles that the general public and veteran population knows little about. <br />
<br />
<br />
<b>Note some of the website articles below that accurately describe this Great Flu Pandemic of 1918:</b><br />
<br />
(1) The Influenza Pandemic of 1918: The Influence of the Influenza Pandemic on the Military (see; <a href="http://www.antimicrobe.org/history/Influenza/flu_military.htm" target="_blank">http://www.antimicrobe.org/history/Influenza/flu_military.htm</a> ).<br />
<br />
(2) 1918 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Army Perspective (see; <a href="http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=641" target="_blank">http://www.semp.us/publications/biot_reader.php?BiotID=641</a> ).<br />
<br />
(3)  Influenza of 1918 (Spanish Flu) and the US Navy (see: <a href="http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/influenza_main.htm" target="_blank">http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/influenza_main.htm</a> ).<br />
<br />
(4) This site shows impact: More people (est. 50 Million) died in one year in the 1918 epidemic than in the 4 years of the Black Death in the 1300's. 675,000 Americans died of the epidemic and...reports 47,000 US Army soldiers died of the flu in 1918, equal to 3 whole army divisions being killed off in the war by this disease (see: <a href="http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/uda/" target="_blank">http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/uda/</a> ).<br />
<br />
(5) Here are some Army pictures: <a href="http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&;fr=yfp-t-701&va=1918+flu+pandemic+in+the+army" target="_blank">http://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-701&va=1918+flu+pandemic+in+the+army</a> .<br />
<br />
(6) Also another site on the pandemic in the military camps: <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862337/" target="_blank">http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862337/</a> .<br />
<br />
(7) Here is yet  another site ( <a href="http://www.rotten.com/library/history/flu-pandemic/" target="_blank">http://www.rotten.com/library/history/flu-pandemic/</a> ).<br />
<br />
(8) <i>The Mother of all Viruses</i> <a href="http://www.realtruth.org/articles/090907-002-health.html" target="_blank">http://www.realtruth.org/articles/090907-002-health.html</a> ).<br />
<br />
(9) In1918, World War I and the Spanish Flu Fed Each Other (see: <a href="http://bookofodds.com/Accidents-Death/Articles/A0225-Flu-Week-In-1918-World-War-I-and-the-Spanish-Flu-Fed-Each-Other" target="_blank">http://bookofodds.com/Accidents-Death/Articles/A0225-Flu-Week-In-1918-World-War-I-and-the-Spanish-Flu-Fed-Each-Other</a> ).<br />
<br />
(10) Report, Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War, Vol.IX, Communicable and Other Diseases (see: <a href="http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AMH/XX/WWI/Army/Medical/IX/USA-Med-IX-2.html" target="_blank">http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AMH/XX/WWI/Army/Medical/IX/USA-Med-IX-2.html</a> ).<br />
<br />
(11) Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps casualty list for 1918 including flu casualties (see: <a href="http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyUS-Casualties.htm#USMCNotes" target="_blank">http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyUS-Casualties.htm#USMCNotes</a> ).<br />
<br />
(12) Look at this site on the 1918 flu pandemic ( see:<a href="http://1918.pandemicflu.gov/index.htm" target="_blank">http://1918.pandemicflu.gov/index.htm</a> ). it shows the impact in every state...some hit harder than others (see: Illinois & Chicago).<br />
<br />
(13) Behind the numbers of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 in the United States (see: <a href="http://bookofodds.com/content/view/print/567550" target="_blank">http://bookofodds.com/content/view/print/567550</a> ).<br />
<br />
(14) Gina Kolata, a New York Times correspondent for scientific affairs wrote of this 1918 H1N1 flu in her book "<b><i>Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused it</i></b> (see: <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Flu-Story-Influenza-Pandemic-ebook/dp/B004YEJ6P8/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&;ie=UTF8&qid=1328591544&sr=1-2" target="_blank">http://www.amazon.com/Flu-Story-Influenza-Pandemic-ebook/dp/B004YEJ6P8/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1328591544&sr=1-2</a> ).<br />
<br />
(15) <b><i>Fever of War: The influenza Epidemic in the US Army in World War I</i></b> by Carol R. Bylerly (see: <a href="http://www.amazon.com/Fever-War-Influenza-Epidemic-during/dp/0814799248" target="_blank">http://www.amazon.com/Fever-War-Influenza-Epidemic-during/dp/0814799248</a> ). <br />
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