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FOS Newsletter, 11/26/01  Peter Suber
 Nov 26, 2001 08:29 PST 
      Welcome to the Free Online Scholarship (FOS) Newsletter
      November 26, 2001

I'll be attending an FOS conference in Budapest next week sponsored by the
Open Society Institute. As a result, the next issue of the newsletter will
appear after I return and catch up on my news-gathering.


Case study in freshman search syndrome

When you run a web search on a topic you don't know well, how can you tell
when you get authentic information and when you get ideology, superstition,
pseudo-science, or even parody? Sometimes you can't, especially if you're
downloading pages in a language that isn't your native tongue, in a
discipline you haven't mastered, from a culture with a very different sense
of humor. Your first-year students aren't the only ones trapped in the
cloud of unknowing. Meet al-Qaeda.

When reporters Anthony Loyd and John Simpson walked through the abandoned
rooms of an al-Qaeda safe house in Kabul, they found half-burned documents
showing that al-Qaeda had been trying to build a nuclear bomb. When they
held some of the pages up to a BBC camera, the learned folks at _Daily
Rotten_ recognized one as a copy of a 1979 spoof of bomb-building from the
_Journal of Irreproducible Results_. One clue to the parody was the
source, a humor journal that hosts the Ig Noble Prizes. Other clues were
scattered through the article itself. It cites the previous month's column
on building a time-machine. It instructs the reader to buy 50 pounds of
weapons grade plutonium "at your local supplier" and those who don't have
one should contact their "local terrorist organization, or perhaps the
Junior Achievement in your neighborhood".   The completed bomb makes "a
great ice-breaker at parties". For next month's column it promises to
teach "how to clone your neighbor's wife in six easy steps" with nothing
but kitchen utensils.

Al-Qaeda didn't have sufficient understanding of physics, English, or geek
humor to catch this piece in their filters. I would have thought that a
native command of English and a good general education would be enough to
catch the parody. But it isn't. Anthony Loyd was also taken in --or else
this London Times reporter was playing dumb when he described the parody as
abstruse and confusing. This small incident wouldn't be worth more than a
sentence if it didn't illustrate a problem already common and likely to
become more common as FOS and drek continue to grow in juxtaposition on the
internet. Every search presupposes unpredictably many variables for
discriminating judgment. Without antecedent knowledge, inquirers cannot
reliably distinguish new knowledge from error or deception. As Socrates
said to Meno: searching for truth is pointless if I'll either find what I
already know or be unable to recognize it as truth when I stumble across
it. (Plato, _Meno_, 80.d.)

Taliban Thwarted by Irreproducible Result

Farhad Manjoo, Osama's Nuclear Plans Half-Baked

Annals of Improbable Research (AIR), formerly the Journal of Irreproducible
Results (JIR)

The 1979 bomb-parody story from JIR
(The story is not archived at the JIR/AIR site, but was apparently rekeyed
by this site, among many other sites.)

More on the relevance of what Socrates said in the _Meno_

* Postscript. Our new defense against terrorism: Misinformation naturally
produced by a free people speaking freely.



* MathWorld is back online, after being forced off for more than a year by
a lawsuit from CRC Press. MathWorld is a free online mathematical
encyclopedia edited by Eric Weisstein. Weisstein has now put online a
detailed, depressing, and eye-opening account of how CRC took unwanted
control of his work. After Weisstein agreed to let CRC publish a
"snapshot" of the continuously growing web site, it asked him to remove
some content from the web in order to stimulate book sales, then dropped
the book from its catalog, and finally sued him for copyright
infringement. Contract language favoring CRC forced MathWorld to settle
the suit. Bravo to Weisstein for publishing these backstory details online
and to Wolfram Research for supporting free online access to MathWorld.


Eric Weisstein, What Happened to MathWorld

* DP9 is an open source gateway service that allows general search engines,
like Google, to index OAI-compliant archives. It stands between the
crawler and the archive, intercepts the crawler's requests, forwards them
to the archive, and translates the archive's output from XML into
HTML. This allows OAI archives hidden in the deep internet to be indexed
by search engines that don't venture into the deep internet. DP9 was
developed by Xiaoming Liu of the Old Dominion University DLib Group.

DP9 home page

Source code for downloading

* The Resource Discovery Network (RDN) has launched RDN-Include, which
allows higher education sites to put the RDN search engine on their
pages. Sites may use the RDN search engine for a specific discipline or
the general RDN search engine. Users see RDN's hit list of hand-picked
resources and the useful RDN annotations on each one. The service is free
for UK education sites and may be licensed by others.

* Thanos Tzounopoulos, a Greek-born U.S. neuroscientist and Fulbright
scholar was kicked off an Alaska Air plane before take-off when another
passenger complained that he looked strange. He had been reading
neuroscience papers, concentrating and puzzling over them, and occasionally
looking off into space. (PS: The next thing you hear will be a knock on
the door.)

* Questia is not as popular or profitable as its founders projected and has
cut its workforce by 50%. Questia is a very expensive source of online
texts and study aids aimed at college students (see FOSN for 7/31/01,
8/31/01, 10/26/01). (PS: I commend all those college students who saw
through this attempt to exploit ignorance of less expensive online
resources including those licensed by their own libraries. Nietzsche said,
"Push what is falling.")

* Oxford University Press will put 100 "well-known and trusted dictionaries
and reference books" online with a unified front end and search engine. It
plans to launch in March 2002. The service will not be free.

* Students and faculty in economics, business, and finance now have free
online access to the huge EDGAR database, for which others pay $100/year.

* The National Institue of Health, which operates the National Library of
Medicine, has been looking a small browser for hand-held wireless platforms
to help doctors take PubMed to the bedside on a PDA. It just awarded the
contract to Gomid.com.

* The University of California libraries have received a Mellon grant to
study how users respond when they have online access, and not print access,
to selected journals.

* Other media are making much of the fact that the pope is distributing
_Ecclesia in Oceania_ electronically as well as in print. But it's only a
piece of email and so far the public has no access to it. The document
apologizes for the sexual abuse of children by priests and for the
exploitation of native peoples of the South Pacific by missionaries.

* ContentWire reports that ViewSum has launched a desktop version of its
text summary software. Text summary software, like taxonomy software (see
FOSN for 11/2/01), was developed for busy executives but has natural
applications to research. ViewSum will summarize a text in as many words
as the user chooses. If you have the text in electronic form, then you
simply drag it to the ViewSum icon, or right click and select the ViewSum
option. Imagine turning your "must read" pile from 100 articles to 100
paragraphs. If you can trust the summaries, then you can use them to
decide which articles need a full and careful read. When this kind of
software becomes trustworthy, it will be one of the most useful fruits of
AI. I'd love to test ViewSum, but unfortunately the company home page does
nothing to help prospective buyers or testers put their hands on a
copy. Instead of running this story last week, I wrote the company to find
out how to buy or test its software. So far I've received no answer.

ContentWire story



New on the net

* _Best of Science_ is a new free online peer-reviewed science journal
covering nearly all scientific disciplines. It recoups the costs of online
publication through fund-raising and author fees, which it reduces for
authors from developing countries. This is welcome but standard
fare. More remarkable is the pro-FOS statement of principles inspiring it,
issued jointly by the ICSU (International Council for Science) and UNESCO
(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).

Best of Science

ICSU-UNESCO statement of principles on electronic publishing in science

* The Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity has released free, downloadable
software tools to create and query scientific data stored in its national
network of XML documents.

* The papers presented at the November 9-11 conference on the public domain
at Duke Law School are now online. (PS: Nice touch: For the PDF files,
it recommends Ghostscript, the open source PDF viewer, over Adobe
Acrobat.) About half the papers have a strong connection to FOS.

* A revised and updated second edition of the handbook, _Licensing Digital
Resources: How to Avoid the Legal Pitfalls_, is now online. It is
produced by the Central and Eastern European Licensing Information Platform

* Springer-Verlag's Landolt-Boernstein, a 290 volume database on chemistry,
physics, and technology, will be available in its entirety on the web after
its launch on December 4. Only the volumes up to 1990 will be free.

* Bookmark this useful chart to refresh your memory on when works of
different vintage pass into the public domain. Thanks to the University of
North Carolina's Task Force on Intellectual Property.

* The four major papers from the 2001 SLA conference on electronic journals
have now been put online.

* Walt Crawford has put online the index to volume 1 (2001) of his
newsletter, _Cites & Insights_.

* Cisco Systems has put online the results of its unique poll of Nobel
laureates. The prize winners still active in research use the internet,
and those whose research careers are largely behind them say they wish it
had existed earlier. (Their median age is 72.) 67% said it would have
enabled them to do their research more quickly, and 91% said that it will
accelerate their current research. 87% said it will improve
education. 91% said it will enlarge educational opportunities. 93% said
it will give students greater access to libraries, information, and
teachers around the world. 95% said it will help scholars disseminate
their work.


Share your thoughts

* The Electronic Literature Institute (ELI) seeks your nominations for this
year's Independent e-Book Awards. Generally these awards are for
commercial ebooks, although some of the non-fiction categories (computer,
ecology, history, reference) might accommodate scholarly ebooks. ELI will
accept nominations until November 30.

* Syracuse University's School of Information Studies wants your
nominations for its second annual 21st Century Librarian Award. Librarians
working toward FOS will satisfy several of the criteria listed on the award
web site. Nominations are due by February 8, 2002.

* FacultyOnline will pay for every book review "submitted and approved" by
January 1. If you review a book marked as "key", you get $10; reviews of
other books bring $5. FacultyOnline maintains a free online database of
textbook reviews to help faculty pick books for class.



* Joseph Pelton, Research Professor at George Washington University and
Director of the Arthur Clarke Institute, claims that the volume of the
world's information is growing 200,000 times faster than the world's
population. If true, then (to quote Bonita Wilson's summary of Pelton's
talk), "the only certainty is that the way we deal with information must
and will fundamentally change."


In other publications

* In the November 26 _Law.com_, Larry Keller reports on the state of
Florida's attempt to balance the public's right of access to court records
with the privacy of those involved in lawsuits. A judicial panel has
decided to limit access to certain records, but as one judge admits,
"There's no easy answer." The judges are also worried that "the chilling
effect of reduced practical obscurity" (great phrase) will make witnesses
and jurors less willing to participate in legal proceedings.

* In the November 21 _Los Angeles Times_, D. Ian Hopper points out an
under-reported implication of recent counter-terrorist legislation. The
U.S. now claims jurisdiction over all internet content that travels on U.S.
wires, and it turns out that 80% of all internet nodes in Asia, Africa, and
South America receive their traffic routed through a U.S. city. So the new
U.S. definition of terroristic computer acts, which can include some
rights-preserving hacks and online scholarship on sensitive subjects (see
FOSN for 9/28/01), essentially applies to most of the world, not just to
U.S. citizens. The U.S. could demand the extradition of foreign nationals
working in their own countries and try them under U.S. law. Quoting Mark
Rasch, from Predictive Systems, a computer security firm: "It's a massive
expansion of U.S. sovereignty." Quoting David Sobel, general counsel for
the Electronic Privacy Information Center: "It was enacted under the guise
of counterterrorism, but it is in fact applicable to all types of crimes."

* In the November 20 _Wired_, M.J. Rose brings us up to date on the recent
expansion of ebrary, the sale of netLibrary, and the merger of Bookspan and

* In a November 19 report for _Hastings Research_, Nicholas Carroll argues
for an "anti-thesaurus" allowing a site author to tweak its metadata in
order to decrease its relevance for certain search terms. For example, I
could use it to decrease the relevance of the FOS home page for
"scholarships" and "financial aid". (PS: Neat idea. Why turn away
visitors, even if they're visiting in error? The same reason we put up
free content: to be helpful.)

* In the November 18 _Los Angeles Times_, Eric Lichtblau gives a good
overview of the deletion of scientific information from government web
sites, the extent of the deletions, and the debate about its
necessity. One new nugget: the government has asked federal depository
libraries to destroy CD's containing information it now regards as high-risk.

While law-abiding federal depository libraries are destroying high-risk
information, Timothy Tobiason is selling a book at gun shows telling anyone
with $10 how to make biological weapons that can destroy cities.

* The November issue of _D-Lib_, has a large number of FOS-related articles:

Lee Zia on the current state of the NSF's National Science, Technology,
Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library (NSDL) Program.

Linda Pearce on what the University of Calgary learned from developing
electronic reserves.

Jola Prinsen summarizing the sixth International Summer School on the
Digital Library (August 5-10, Tilburg, the Netherlands).

Dale Peters on an open source model for digital library development in
South Africa.

Betty Neuwenburg on joint project of IBM and the national library of the
Netherlands to solve the problem of long-term preservation and access for

William Moen on the Z39.50 Interoperability Testbed (Zinterop) with an
invitation to libraries to participate (see FOSN for 11/2/01).

Anjlee Bhatt and Pete Dalton on eVALUEd, an evaluation model for digital

Polly Christie on the UK's Visual Arts Data Service, its plan for a
National Fine Art Digital Collection, and how to curate a distributed

Maggie Hite on the World Library Partnership's search for volunteers to
help libraries in South Africa and Honduras make the exploding world of
information accessible to their local communities. It looks like a
librarian's Peace Corps.

* In the October issue of _Information Research_, Donald Hawkins describes
a bibliometric study of the ejournals for the field of information science.

* In the same issue of _Information Research_ Kira Tarapanoff and three
co-authors describe an experimental use of data mining for scholarly
research. They mined a database of French doctoral theses for knowledge
about Brazil.

* In a September 18 column for _eBookWeb_, Sam Vaknin writes a brief
history of the book, with intriguing parallels to the rise of electronic
media. Soon after moveable-type books appeared, there was a period of
intense competition, inconsistent content, rapid innovation, flagrant
piracy, and criticism of the new medium as a threat to culture by the
monasteries that controlled the old medium.$579

* In the Fall 2001 issue of _Processed World_, Howard Besser documents "the
attack on public access to culture" and the erosion of the three most
important rights that copyright law originally reserved for the
public: the public domain, fair use, and first sale. "We need to stop the
fencing off of our information commons and seize it back as a public space."

* In the Fall 2001 _Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship_ Kathy
Fescemyer describes the six wishes of a public service librarian. Here's
what we face: "I ask students, if information is valuable, will it be
given away on the web for free? Very rarely is complex, sophisticated
information freely available."

* In a November 1 article in _Library Journal_, Priscilla Caplan shows why
reference linking (linking between citations and sources) is more complex
than it may appear, and describes the role of DOI's and the efforts of
CrossRef and SFX in working out a solution. She does not mention jake or
OpCit, the more open solutions to this problem.

* In an October 1 article in _Library Journal_, Carol Tenopir collects
usage data on the major scholarly databases. Which are the most used and
how have their relative positions changed over the past decade?

* In a recent but undated story for _CNN_, Todd Weiss gives a brief look at
the role of (corporate) archivists in the digital age.

* In a recent but undated issue of _Shift_, Christopher Shulgan interviews
Douglas Rushkoff on _Exit Strategy_, his new "open source novel", to which
readers can add footnotes. Quoting Rushkoff: "I really believe that
top-down, sole authorship is not going to be as interesting, or as
relevant, as something that's community-authored."

* How can you explain to students and colleagues when a search engine is
better than a directory? Try pointing them to this funny, undated piece
from a recent issue of _The Onion_. Quoting its fictional hero, Larry
Wisniewski: "Last week, we had a houseguest who was wondering if there
were any Jesuit colleges in Ohio. All I had to do was open up my AOL
software, enter my password, point the browser to www.yahoo.com, and click
on Society & Culture, followed by Religion & Spirituality. From there, I
had only to click Faiths & Practices, then Christianity, then Denominations
& Sects, and then Catholic. Then I simply clicked on Orders, Jesuits,
Colleges & Universities, Ohio, and boom, right there in front of me are
Xavier University in Cincinnati and John Carroll University in Cleveland."


Following up

* SafeWeb is pulling the plug on its free privacy service, though it may
return later with a paid version. SafeWeb was an award-winning service to
give users access to web sites that their government, employer, or school
wanted to block (see FOSN for 9/21/01). It was one of the most effective
technologies to create anonymous and safe access to the web in countries or
other environments where viewing certain sites was punishable. SafeWeb had
funding from the CIA.


Elinor Mills Abreu, CIA-Backed Web Privacy Firm Closes Service

* SafeWeb (see previous item) was much used and very successful in Saudi
Arabia. I can't help but notice the juxtaposition of SafeWeb's demise and
Jennifer Lee's story in the New York Times that 11 companies are competing
intensely for a lucrative Saudi government contract to block Saudi citizens
from viewing certain religious, political, and pornographic sites. The
site-blocking companies know they are being hired to censor and have
various rationalizations for their line of work. Quoting Matthew Holt of
Secure Computing: "Once we sell them the product, we can't enforce how
they use it."

* In several past issues, I've supported the idea of book and article
summaries as a service to help scholars stay up to date and save time. So
I was sorry to read that a Japanese court has ordered Kometto Hanta, a
bookstore in the Fukui Prefecture, to stop posting book summaries to its
web site. I can't tell whether the books summarized were fiction or
non-fiction. The problem here seems to have been the length of the
summaries (up to 4,000 characters), not their free accessibility or mere

* In the last issue I included a link to a discussion thread in the
Electronic Resources in Libraries (ERIL) list in which librarians were
airing their complaints about EBSCO Online. Unfortunately the link only
works for ERIL subscribers and and ERIL does not accept non-academics as

* Amy Smithson has responded to press coverage of her Congressional
testimony on forcing certain web sites to remove information, including
some scientific information, that might be useful to terrorists (see FOSN
for 11/16/01). Quoting her: "I thoroughly respect and advocate the
public's right to know of the industrial dangers in their communities..."
but citizens should get this information in F2F meetings with local
chemical plants and emergency planning committees, not from print
publications or the web. (PS: Again we face the question of excessive
accessibility for information that all agree should be available to the
public; see the item on "practical obscurity" above, and FOSN for
10/12/01. FOS drags the slider to the max; Smithson drags it to the
opposite extreme. When a statute requires that certain information be made
public, must it specify the degree of difficulty?)


Catching up (old news I should have discovered earlier)

* Tom Wilson maintains a large index of free online sources of information
and research for the fields of information management, information science,
and information systems. It's one of the best disciplinary guides to FOS
that I've seen.

BTW, he only disciplinary guide to FOS I've seen that is comparable to
Wilson's in scope is Bernd Sebastian Kamps' Free Medical Journals. If you
know other exemplary disciplinary guides to FOS, please let me know about them.

* In July, the Computing Research Association put online its Best Practices
Memo on how to resolve the conflicts between academic computing research
and the commercial possibilities and entanglements which often accompany it.

* Wilfrid Hodges has written a wonderfully detailed and helpful online
checklist for mathematicians deciding what contract terms to request, or to
accept, from a publisher. The checklist was approved and recommended by
the International Mathematical Union's Committee on Electronic Information
and Communication. Though aimed at mathematicians, Hodge's checklist and
advice apply to all academic authors.

* MemoWare collects free online texts readable on PDAs. It now has more
10,000 texts, organized into fiction and many kinds of "reference" (e.g.
engineering, history, law, math and science). You can't preview the files
unless you have a PDA or a PDA reader (Palm, EPOC, or PPC) on your desktop,
but I suppose this no drawback for the intended users of the service. You
can search the collection by keyword, subject, file format, platform, or
language. (PS: If all FOS were available in PDA formats, then the
revolution would spread beyond research to classroom teaching. Imagine
assigning electronic texts knowing that students would have electronic
access to them in class; see the Benjamin Ray story in FOSN for 5/18/01.)



If you plan to attend one of the following conferences, please share your
observations with us through our discussion forum.

* Eighth Call for Proposals of the European IST Programme
London, November 27

* European Forum on Harmful and Illegal Cyber Content
Strasbourg, November 28

* Canadian Digital Library Symposium
Toronto, November 28-29

* Debate between Lawrence Lessig and Jack Valenti on the impact of
intellectual property rights on innovation and creativity
Los Angeles, November 29
(There will be a live webcast for those who cannot attend.)

* Fall 2001 CNI Task Force Meeting
San Antonio, November 29-30

* eGovernment [in Europe]: From Policy to Practice
Brussels, November 29-30

* Digital Media Revolution in the Americas
Pasadena, November 29 - December 1

* Fourth SCHEMAS Workshop: Sharing [metadata] schemas
The Hague, November 30

* 2001 IST Exhibition and Awards
Düsseldorf, December 3

* School for Scanning: Creating, Managing, and Preserving Digital Assets
Delray Beach, Florida, December 3-5

* Developing Digital Collections: Why, What, Who, How?
Southborough, Massachusetts, December 4

* Online Information 2001
London, December 4-6

* Second Meeting of the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability
Standards (CETIS) Educational Content Special Interest Group (EC SIG)
Luton, December 7

* The Electronic Library: Strategic, Policy and Management Issues
Loughborough, December 9-14

* 4th International Conference of Asian Digital Libraries
Bangalore, December 10-12

* Moving Beyond the Catalog: Bibliographic Access in a Web World
Worcester, Massachusetts, December 11

* Academic Institutions Transforming Scholarly Communications (SPARC/ARL
Forum at the ALA Midwinter Meeting)
New Orleans, January 18-23


The Free Online Scholarship Newsletter is supported by a grant from the
Open Society Institute.


This is the Free Online Scholarship Newsletter (ISSN 1535-7848).

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Guide to the FOS Movement

Peter Suber

Copyright (c) 2001, Peter Suber

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